English Quiz 5th July- English Quiz for SBI PO 2020

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Directions (1-5): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

About Course:

In religious discourses, we often hear that the five vices we should avoid are Kam (lust), Krodh (anger), Lobh (greed), Moh (attachment) and Ahankar (ego).

However, these emotions are as natural as love and friendship. A wonderful book by renowned psychologist, Dr Clarissa Pinkola Estes, titled Women who run with the Wolves made the point that many of the psychological problems in women – and to a lesser extent in men, stemmed from the fact that society discouraged them from expressing themselves in a natural way.

There were a great number of impositions and codes of behavior laid down and adhering to the more rigid of these artificial impositions created psychological stress and complexes in women. The onus of conducting themselves correctly – and these notions of correctness were often spelt out by men – was disproportionately loaded against women.

Nature and science place a lot of emphasis on homeostasis and balance for optimum functioning of an organism. Even spiritual texts extol the benefits of moderation. The ‘middle path’ is well highlighted in Buddhism as are a balance of Yin/Yang in Daoism.

Though there is a fair amount of emphasis on overcoming ‘negative’ emotions and subduing them to a great extent, I personally believe, like many others do, in a beautiful balance of forces being the key to a healthy life. Not accepting these qualities as positive contributors to our psyche and health may actually lead to imbalances. I feel these five emotions have a very important role to play in our lives and their worth cannot be ignored.

Let us examine some of these emotions: Look at the feelings of very young children. Innocent children sound nothing but sweet when their sense of envy with their sibling makes them tell their parents accusingly ’you love him/her more!’ Or just watch the way your little pet jumps onto your lap and places its snout into your hand when you are talking to your children lovingly. It seems to say, ‘it’s my turn- play with me now, not with them!’ This pure and clean form of envy and desire doesn’t seem unhealthy in a child or a pet. It acts as a signal to the parent that the child is merely seeking reassurance.

The parents are often able to successfully provide this reassurance and this leads to a feeling of security and confidence in the child. If the child did not express these feelings, it may end up feeling quietly hopeless in its own mind. Conversely, if parents and caregivers communicate with the child and proffer reassurance, it is more likely to grow up to be a fairly confident and secure adult.

Attraction or attachment to a person you love can be quite healthy in moderation. Thinking about others and their welfare is a highly desirable emotion. Putting others before self is a rare quality, not easily found in the atmosphere of selfishness prevalent today. Moreover, at a community level, it is extremely important for the community and for its members to be interested and engaged deeply with one another. It is a true manifestation of the spirit of ‘the world is one family’. It is also far better than being obsessed with oneself.

When one is asked to look inward, it is more with the idea of examining one’s shortcomings, recognising them and working to eliminate them. Sadly, many are not able to cross the first step itself and ‘looking inwards’ tends to merely veer towards narcissism.

Similarly, anger can be an excellent watchdog in alerting a person to the need for self-defense. It is usually thoughtless or unkind actions or disappointments that evoke this in us. We can use anger as a valuable guide and catalyst that spurs us to action. I often think that women have taken Gandhiji’s advice of ‘turning the other cheek’ more seriously than their male counterparts. They should stand up for themselves and others more often when confronted with abuse and unkindness. Anger, if interpreted and controlled correctly can be an excellent stimulus for goading one towards working for social justice, for making things right.

David Steindl Rast, a modern philosopher of our times has eloquently pointed out in his book ‘The Listening Heart – the Spirituality of Sacred Sensuousness’ that spirituality and austerity do not necessarily go hand in hand and we must celebrate our ability to appreciate the richness of experiences, sensual ones included.

Excess of anything is bad, even perhaps virtue. I would, however, make an exception for love and friendship. I feel strongly and sincerely that one can never have enough of both of these. Accepting our emotions fully and releasing them in a controlled manner may be healthy in the long run. Avoidance of these so-called negative emotions may lead to their erupting suddenly and unexpectedly in unsatisfactory ways.

Q1. Why, according to the author, are women considered psychologically feeble as compared to men?

(I)Women are often inexpressive as their natural intent is limited by the society they live in.

(II)Women often find it difficult to deal with the assumptions construed by men to conduct themselves correctly.

(III)Artificial impositions and codes of behavior generate a sense of complexities among women.

(a)Only (I) is correct

(b)Both (I) and (II) are correct

(c)Both (II) and (III) are correct

(d)Both (I) and (III) are correct

(e)All are correct

Q2. How, according to the author, can the negative emotions, if not controlled properly, lead to imbalance of forces?

(a)The negative emotions, if not checked properly, may hamper the art of creativity that one possesses.

(b)Excess of negative emotions may create a sense of insecurity and uneasiness, especially among young children and women.

(c)Failing to subdue the negative emotions may affect the psyche and health of a person.

(d)The unmoved negative emotions give birth to the five vices that one should avoid.

(e)None of the above options is correct.

Q3. What does the author mean by the statement, “It acts as a signal to the parent that the child is merely seeking reassurance.”?

(I)Unlike adults, their sense of envy with their sibling among the children is the sweetest form of innocence as they seek their parents’ attention to love them more.

(II)The mere sense of envy and desire in a child or a pet is pure and healthy as they just wish for love from their parents.

(III)The reassurance that the children seek from their parents leads to a feeling of security and confidence in them.

(a)Only (I) is correct

(b)Only (II) is correct

(c)Only (III) is correct

(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct

(e)All are correct

Q4. Which of the following statements does not satisfy the author’s point of view?

(a) Attraction or attachment to a person you love can be quite beneficial in moderation.

(b) It is important for the community and for its members to be interested and care about one another.

(c) Thinking about others and their welfare is a highly desirable emotion.

(d) Sometimes it is better to be self-obsessed than seeking other’s attention.

(e) All of the above statements satisfy the author’s point of view.

Q5. How, according to the author, can anger be used as a valuable guide, if interpreted and controlled properly?

(I)Anger can be an exceptional protector in alerting a person to the need for self-defense.

(II)Anger can be a terrific stimulus for motivating one towards working for social justice, for correcting the things.

(III)Anger can be used as a tool to overcome unexpected negative emotions.

(a)Only (II) is correct

(b)Only (III) is correct

(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct

(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct

(e)All are correct

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