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GA Topper Series: Regional International Organization Part 2

SCO- Shanghai Cooperation Organization

  • Year of establishment: 2001, in force 2003
  • No of Members: 8, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan
  • Headquarters: Beijing
  • Head: Zhang Ming
  • Other facts: In June 2017 Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan got the membership

Structure:

  • Heads of State Council – The supreme SCO body which decides its internal functioning and its interaction with other States & international organizations, and considers international issues.
  • Heads of Government Council – Approves the budget, considers and decides upon issues related to economic spheres of interaction within SCO.
  • Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs – Considers issues related to day-to-day activities.
  • Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) – Established to combat terrorism, separatism and extremism.

BRICS: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.

  • Year of establishment: 2006
  • No of Members: 5,  Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
  • Headquarters: Shanghai
  • Head:–
  • Other facts:
  1. In 2011, with South Africa joining the group, the BRICS reached its final composition, incorporating a country from the African continent.
  2. New Development Bank: During the sixth BRICS Summit in Fortaleza (2014), the leaders signed the Agreement establishing the New Development Bank (NDB). Headquartered at Shanghai

AUKUS- Australia, United Kingdom, USA

  • Year of establishment: 2021
  • No of Members: Australia, United Kingdom, USA
  • Headquarters:–
  • Head:–
  • Other facts: 
    • a new trilateral security partnership for the Indo-Pacific, between Australia, the UK and the US (AUKUS).
  • As part of this initiative, Australia will acquire nuclear-powered submarines with help from the UK and the US.

I2U2

  • Year of establishment: 2022
  • No of Members: 4, India, Israel, USA, UAE
  • Other facts:
  1. Announced by the USA
  2. I2U2 was initially formed in October 2021 following the Abraham Accords between Israel and the UAE, to deal with issues concerning maritime security, infrastructure, and transport in the region.
  3. At that time, it was called the ‘International Forum for Economic Cooperation’.
  • That was referred to as the ‘West Asian Quad’.
  • The first summit in July 2022

IPEF- Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity

  • Year of establishment: 2022
  • No of Members: 13,  India, Japan, USA, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, and Brunei
  • Other facts: The IPEF has been touted as an economic pact that would not negotiate tariffs or market access. It primarily seeks integration with the participating countries on issues of trade, supply chains, clean energy, decarbonization, infrastructure, and tax and anti-corruption. It is likely to seek a collective approach to boosting regional trade cooperation, improving transparency, and managing crises such as the Covid-19 pandemic and future crises through the development of initiatives like the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure.

NAM: Non-Aligned Movement

  • Year of establishment: 1961
  • No of Members: 120
  • Other facts:
  1. The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War as an organization of States that did not seek to formally align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union but sought to remain independent or neutral.
  2. The basic concept for the group originated in 1955 during discussions that took place at the Asia-Africa Bandung Conference held in Indonesia.
  3. The first NAM Summit Conference took place in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in September 1961.

GA Topper Series: Regional International Organization Part 2_50.1

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