Verbs: English Language Notes for Bank and Other Competitive Exams (Download PDF)


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Verb: A Verb is a word that is used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forms the main part of the predicate of a sentence. The verb is the main word in a sentence. No sentence can be completed without a verb.
For Example: Ram plays the Piano. 
Here, ‘plays’ is an action Verb. An action of playing is being performed by Ram. 

1. Finite verbs 
2. Non-finite verbs 
3. Transitive verbs 
4. Intransitive verbs 
1. Finite Verbs: A finite verb is a form of a verb that 
(a) shows agreement with a subject and 
(b) is marked for tense.
Also, Finite verbs are sometimes called main verbs or tensed verbs. These verbs have the past or the present form. 
For Example:
  • Paul runs to work every day.
  • We walked a lot together

2. Non-finite verbs: Non-Finite verb forms do not show tense, person or number.  They cannot be the main verb of a clause or sentence. They do not indicate any tense, mood or gender. 
Non-finite verbs take three different forms:
(a) Infinite (b) Gerund (c) Participle 
(a) Infinite verbs: An infinitive is also known as the base form, and is often introduced by a main verb and the word “to,” before the main verb. 
  • He likes to read.
  • He wanted to swim in the Pond. 

(b) Gerund verbs: A gerund is formed by adding -ing to a verb. If functions as a noun. 
Example –
  • Smoking is injurious to Health.
  • Leaving home can be very traumatic

Important Note: We use ‘V₁+ing’ after ‘to’ With the following verbs/ adjectives/ phrases
Example- Verb + used to, accustomed to, averse to, with a view to, addicted to, devoted to, in addition to, look forward to, object to, owing to, given to, taken to, prone to. 
 Example – 
  • I am looking forward to meeting you. 

In other words, after all the prepositions (including ‘to’), if a verb comes, the verb has to be in ‘V₁+ing’ 
(c) Participle Verb: A participle verb is usually formed by adding -ing or -ed to a verb. Participles are verbs that act as adjectives in the sentence. Present participles end in “-ing”. Past participles usually end in “-ed”, but there are many irregular past participles that end in “-en”.
Example – 
  • Can you help me fix the leaning column of blocks?
  • She has learned the Lesson. 

3. Transitive Verb: Transitive Verbs are the Verbs that require an object after it.
Example: She loves animals.
Here, ‘animals’ is the object for the verb ‘loves’. 
4. Intransitive Verb: An intransitive verb is one that does not take a direct object. In other words, it is not done to someone or something. It only involves the subject. 
Example:  The baby was crying.
In the above sentence ‘crying’ is an intransitive Verb. 

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