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GA Topper Series: Constitutional Articles or Acts

Internet shut down in Rajasthan

  • For internet shutdowns, Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency or Public Safety) Rules were notified under the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 in 2017.
  • Before 2017, Internet shutdowns were ordered under Section 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), which gives District Magistrates broad powers during dangerous situations.

Defection in Maharashtra assembly

  • The anti-defection law punishes individual Members of Parliament (MPs)/MLAs for leaving one party for another.
  • Parliament added it to the Constitution as the Tenth Schedule in 1985. Its purpose was to bring stability to governments by discouraging legislators from changing parties.
  • The Tenth Schedule – popularly known as the Anti-Defection Act – was included in the Constitution via the 52nd Amendment Act, 1985.

Plastic ban in India

  • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has announced a ban on – earbuds; balloon sticks; candy and ice-cream sticks; cutlery items including plates, cups, glasses, forks, spoons, knives, trays; sweet boxes; invitation cards; cigarette packs; PVC banners measuring under 100 microns; and polystyrene for decoration.
  • CPCB of India is a statutory organization under the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change. It was established in 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. The CPCB is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
  • Polythene bag: The Ministry had already banned polythene bags under 75 microns in September 2021, expanding the limit from the earlier 50 microns. From December 2022, the ban will be extended to polythene bags under 120 micron
  • The ban will be monitored by the CPCB from the Centre and by the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) that will report to the Centre regularly.
  • Those found violating the ban can be penalized under the Environment Protection Act 1986 – which allows for imprisonment up to 5 years, a penalty up to Rs 1 lakh, or both.
  • Violators can also be asked to pay Environmental Damage Compensation by the SPCB.

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Answer the following expected questions in the comment section:

  1. Under which act do Internet shutdowns happen in India?
  2. CPCB is established under which act?
  3. Penalty under which act for violation of single plastic ban is charged?

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