Most Difficult Questions of English for IBPS PO mains Exam

Reading-Comprehension-for-Bank-Exams
Directions
(1-10): Each of the reading comprehension questions is based on the content of
a passage. After reading the passage answer all questions pertaining to it on
the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For each question,
select the best answer of the choices given.


During the 1960s and 1970s, the primary economic development strategy of local
governments in the United States was to attract manufacturing industries.
Unfortunately, this strategy was usually implemented at another community’s
expense: many manufacturing facilities were
lured
away from their moorings
elsewhere through tax incentives and slick promotional efforts. Through the
transfer of jobs and related revenues that resulted from this practice, one
town’s triumph could become another town’s tragedy.

In the 1980s the strategy shifted from this zero-sum game to one
called “high-technology development,” in which local governments competed to
attract newly formed high-technology manufacturing firms. Although this
approach was preferable to victimizing other geographical areas by taking their
jobs, it also had its shortcomings: high-tech manufacturing firms employ only a
specially trained fraction of the manufacturing workforce, and there simply are
not enough high-tech firms to satisfy all geographic areas.
Recently, local governments have increasingly come to recognize
the advantages of yet a third strategy: the promotion of homegrown small
businesses. Small indigenous
businesses are created by a nearly ubiquitous
resource, local entrepreneurs. With roots in their communities, these
individuals are less likely to be enticed away by incentives offered by another
community. Indigenous industry and talent are kept at home, creating an
environment that both provides jobs and fosters
further entrepreneurship.
Q1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(a) advocate
more effective strategies for encouraging the development of high-technology
enterprises in the United States
(b) contrast
the incentives for economic development offered by local governments with those
offered by the private sector
(c)
acknowledge and counter adverse criticism of programs being used to stimulate
local economic development
(d) define
and explore promotional efforts used by local governments to attract new
industry
(e) review
and evaluate strategies and programs that have been used to stimulate economic
development
Q2. The
passage suggests which of the following about the majority of United States
manufacturing industries before the high-technology development era of the
1980s?
(a) They
lost many of their most innovative personnel to small entrepreneurial
enterprises.
(b) They
experienced a major decline in profits during the 1960s and 1970s.
(c) They
could provide real economic benefits to the areas in which they were located.
(d) They
employed workers who had no specialized skills.
(e) They
actively interfered with local entrepreneurial ventures.
Q3. The tone
of the passage suggests that the author is most optimistic about the economic
development potential of which of the following groups?
(a) Local
governments
(b) High-technology
promoters
(c) Local
entrepreneurs
(d) Manufacturing
industry managers
(e) Economic
development strategists


Q4. The passage does NOT state which of the following about local
entrepreneurs?
(a) They are
found nearly everywhere.
(b) They
encourage further entrepreneurship.
(c) They
attract out-of-town investors.
(d) They
employ local workers.
(e) They are
established in their communities.
Q5. The
author of the passage mentions which of the following as an advantage of
high-technology development?
(a) It
encourages the modernization of existing manufacturing facilities.
(b) It
promotes healthy competition between rival industries.
(c) It
encourages the growth of related industries.
(d) It takes
full advantage of the existing workforce.
(e) It does
not advantage one local workforce at the expense of another.
Directions
(6-10): Choose the word which is most similar in meaning to the word printed in
bold as used in the above passages.
Q6. lured
(a) precise
(b)
discernible
(c)
explanatory
(d)
enumerate
(e) beguile
Q7. Mooring
(a)
alternatives
(b)
distracters
(c) harbor
(d)
atrocious
(e)
directions
Q8. indigenous
(a)
longitude
(b)
depletion
(c) aboriginal
(d)
replenishment
(e)
reclamation
Q9. ubiquitous
(a) single
(b) pervasive
(c) lonely
(d) stimulus
(e) multiple
Q10. fosters
(a) precise
(b)
discernible
(c)
explanatory
(d)
enumerate
(e) stimulate
Directions
(11-15): Each of the reading comprehension questions is based on the content of
a passage. After reading the passage answer all questions pertaining to it on
the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For each question,
select the best answer of the choices given.

In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main product of the United
States economy. But what is meant by “services”? Some economists define a
service as something that is produced and consumed simultaneously, for example,
a haircut. The broader, classical definition is that a service is an intangible
something that cannot be touched or stored. Yet electric utilities can store
energy, and computer programmers save information electronically. Thus, the
classical definition is hard to sustain.
The United
States government’s definition is more practical: services are the residual
category that includes everything that is not agriculture or industry. Under
this definition, services includes activities as diverse as engineering and
driving a bus. However, besides lacking a strong conceptual framework, this
definition fails to recognize the distinction between service industries and
service occupations. It categorizes workers based on their company’s final
product rather than on the actual work the employees perform. Thus, the many
service workers employed by manufacturers – bookkeepers or janitors, for
example – would fall under the industrial rather than the services category. Such
ambiguities reveal the arbitrariness of this definition and suggest that,
although practical for government purposes, it does not accurately reflect the
composition of the current United States economy.
Q11. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with
(a)
discussing research data underlying several definitions
(b) arguing
for the adoption of a particular definition
(c)
exploring definitions of a concept
(d)
comparing the advantages of several definitions
(e)
clarifying some ambiguous definitions
Q12. In
comparing the United States government’s definition of services with the
classical definition, the author suggests that the classical definition is
(a) more
pragmatic
(b) more
difficult to apply
(c) less
ambiguous
(d) more
widely used
(e) more arbitrary
Q13. The
passage suggests which of the following about service workers in the United
States?
(a) The
number of service workers may be underestimated by the definition of services
used by the government.
(b) There
were fewer service workers than agricultural workers before 1988.
(c) The
number of service workers was almost equal to the number of workers employed in
manufacturing until 1988.
(d) Most
service workers are employed in service occupations rather than in service
industries.
(e) Most service
workers are employed in occupations where they provide services that do not
fall under the classical definition of services.

Q14. The author of the passage mentions which of the following as one
disadvantage of the United States government’s definition of services?
(a) It is
less useful than the other definitions mentioned in the passage.
(b) It is
narrower in scope than the other definitions mentioned in the passage.
(c) It is
based on the final product produced rather than on the type of work performed.
(d) It does
not recognize the diversity of occupations within the service industries.
(e) It
misclassifies many workers who are employed in service industries.
Q15. The
author refers to “service workers employed by manufacturers” primarily in order
to point out
(a) a type
of worker not covered by the United States government’s system of classifying
occupations
(b) a flaw
in the United States government’s definition of services
(c) a factor
that has influenced the growth of the service economy in the United States
(d) a type
of worker who is classified on the basis of work performed rather than on the
basis of the company’s final product
(e) the
diversity of the workers who are referred to as service workers
Solutions
S1. Ans.(e) 
Sol. review and evaluate strategies
and programs that have been used to stimulate economic development

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 S2. Ans.(c) 
Sol. They could provide real economic
benefits to the areas in which they were located.

 S3. Ans.(c) 
Sol. Local entrepreneurs

S4. Ans.(c) 
Sol. They attract out-of-town
investors.

S5. Ans.(e) 
Sol. It does not advantage one local
workforce at the expense of another.

S6. Ans.(e) 
Sol. beguile- charm or enchant (someone), often in a deceptive way.

S7. Ans.(c) 
Sol. mooring- a place where a boat or ship can be anchored or moored

S8. Ans.(c) 
Sol. indigenous- originating or occurring naturally in a particular place;
native.

S9. Ans.(b) 
Sol. ubiquitous- present, appearing, or found everywhere.

S10. Ans.(e) 
Sol.  foster-encourage the development of
(something, especially something desirable).

S11. Ans.(c) 
Sol.  exploring
definitions of a concept

S12. Ans.(b) 
Sol.  more
difficult to apply

S13. Ans.(a) 
Sol.  The number
of service workers may be underestimated by the definition of services used by
the government.

S14. Ans.(c) 
Sol.  It is based
on the final product produced rather than on the type of work performed.

S15. Ans.(b) 
Sol.  a flaw in
the United States government’s definition of services