Directions (1-5): Each of the following questions has a paragraph from which one sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
Q1. It wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that air pollution is one of the biggest public concerns in India today. Its implications are many but just two will suffice here. A report of the Lancet Commission on pollution and health states that around 19 lakh people die prematurely every year from diseases caused by outdoor and indoor air pollution. A study by the Indian Journal of Pediatrics shows that the lungs of children who grow up in polluted environments like Delhi are 10% smaller compared to the lungs of children who grow up in the U.S. This is nothing short of a public health emergency. _______________________________
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(a)What is needed, therefore, is a comprehensive policy to curb pollution.
(b)Emissions can be curbed only if people are persuaded to move away from fossil fuels and adopt greener forms of energy.
(c)A part of the carbon revenue thus generated can be used for a systemic overhaul of the energy mix, which, to a large extent, would address the pressing problem of environmental degradation.
(d)The level of carbon tax required for this policy to come into effect is ₹2,818 per metric tonne of CO2.
(e)The highest rise in price will be in fuel and energy since the carbon content is the highest in this category.
Q2. Something in us constantly urges us to seek. This seeking, according to sages, is a reflection of our need for lasting peace and happiness. Ramana Maharshi termed this seeking as a natural yearning within our hearts to be established in a state of permanent peace. He likened this to the natural process whereby birds return to their nests after their travels. However, because of the latent impressions our minds carry over many years and through force of habit, we seek this peace by pursuing various external efforts. ____________________________
(a)Bhagvan Ramana, therefore, advocated turning the mind inwards, by investigating and seeking the source of everything.
(b)Bhagvan Ramana said that the concept of doership is akin to a traveller in a train carrying the suitcase on his head with the notion that this would lessen the burden on the train.
(c)While admitting the relevance of all other techniques, Ramana was uncompromising on the need to ultimately search within so as to dissolve the sense of ego or individual doer ship.
(d)All these efforts prove transient and short as extroversion of the mind only propels a never-ending chain of further pursuits.
(e)Ramakrishna Paramahansa taught the same truth through bhakti, unconditional love and surrender to the Supreme.
Q3. Young and aspirational, the millennial generation that makes up about 40% of India’s population has long been regarded as the saviour and driver of future economic growth. Yet, the gap between the productive labour force and the employment and entrepreneurial opportunities available to them continues to widen. The fourth Industrial Revolution has already made its mark on certain sectors. ________________________.
(a) Fulfilling the great expectations set for the MSDE seems unlikely unless certain changes are made.
(b) To be fair, policymakers recognize the problem and have taken steps to combat it.
(c) As technology continues to surge forward in leaps and bounds, both blue- and white-collar jobs will become increasingly sparse.
(d) Much of India’s workforce is already hampered with outdated and irrelevant skills.
(e) The economic turmoil that could be brought on by further large-scale disruption should be a cause of concern.
Q4. In the past few years, the slowdown in exports could be attributed at least in part to tepid global growth and falling trade intensity. However, this year, the global economy has seen a strong cyclical upturn across geographies and sectors, driven by stronger growth in investment, trade and industrial production. As per S&P Global estimates, global GDP is expected to reverse a two-year slowdown and grow 3.6% in 2017, higher than the 3.1% logged in 2016. __________________________________. In particular, the US and the euro area—India’s largest export destinations—are expected to grow by 70 basis points (bps) and 30 bps higher than in 2016, at 2.2% and 2.3%, respectively.
(a) The impact shows in the exports of labour-intensive sectors, which mainly comprise SMEs.
(b) The pickup is expected to be broad-based, across both advanced and emerging market economies.
(c) The fastest growth in exports was achieved when the rupee was strengthening against the dollar.
(d) Clearly, India has not been able to take advantage of the improving global environment, especially compared with its Asian peers.
(e) Revival in global investment, which has a high import content, further helped boost trade.
Q5. Land and housing rights have been a contentious topic in Kyrgyzstan since the country achieved independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Although under Kyrgyz law the state is supposed to provide a free plot of land to every citizen, as Eurasianet notes, “In reality, a land-allocation process thick with corruption and bureaucratic obstacles awaits anyone attempting to claim his share.” As a result, while elites and those with access to them have acquired more than their fair share of land for housing and construction projects, the majority of the population has been left to fend for themselves, vulnerable to elite power plays and manipulation. _______________________________________.
(a) In this context, land rights and housing issues have long been at the center of political controversy, particularly at times of upheaval
(b) This is especially true in and around Bishkek, where prime land is very attractive and expensive due to plot scarcity and services availability.
(c) In exchange for their support at crunch time for the then newly installed interim government, they expected to be rewarded with the same land for housing.
(d) To this day, however, it has been impossible to establish exactly how many people participated in this scheme and the total sum that was collected.
(e) Land rights and housing issues have long been at the center of political controversy, particularly at times of upheaval.
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Directions (6-10): In the following paragraph, there is a set of four highlighted words against each number indicated in bold in the beginning of the sentences. One of the given words in each set may or may not fit into the statement. Choose the word which is not suitable in the context of the paragraph. If all the four words are correct and feasible, choose (e) i.e. “No error” as your answer.
(6) India’s net direct tax collections reportedly grew by 18.2% in April-December 2017 from a year ago, with advance tax payments in December adding substantially to the kitty. This is welcoming. (7) But the improvement will be sufferable only if the government makes productive use of the audit trails created by the goods and services tax — that allows manufacturers to claim credit for the taxes paid on inputs across the production and income chain — to generate a unified base of tax potential that can be tapped. (8) A mine of information is already available, post the GST rollout. Tax authorities must diligently follow the audit trails, supplements them with big-data analytics.
The gross value added in an economy is equal to gross profits (including depreciation) plus wages and salaries. (9) This hold true at the enterprise level as well. Effectively, the tax base is taxed once with a comprehensive GST. The need is to track how much a company has paid and how much is the actual value addition that has been made. (10) The data must be correlated with what the company claims as its expenses that include electricity bill and payouts to the Employees’ Provident Fund. This would enable tax authorities to check whether a company has declared its income correctly, and assess its tax liability.
Q6. (a) grew
(e) No error.
Q7. (a) sufferable
(e) No error.
(e) No error
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Q9. (a) hold
(e) No error
Q10. (a) correlated
(e) No error
Directions (11-13): In the questions given below a sentence is given with two blanks which are then followed by words which may or may not fill the given sentence. Choose the correct combination of words that can fill the given blanks and make it grammatically and contextually correct.
Q11. One cannot help noticing that if Hinduism was always ________________ and tolerant, then the recent controversy over Rahul Gandhi’s religious beliefs would not have occurred. One also cannot help noticing that if Islam was __________________ solely with peace, groups of Muslims would not be shooting at each other in almost every third Muslim country in the world.
(e)No combination fits
Q12. The very large number of laws and their ________________ interpretations leave the common man at a loss. Adding to the confusion is a police force that enforces law according to its own understanding or on instructions of the political executive, but _________________ on sound judicial principles.
(e)No combination fits
Q13. Given the extraordinary adoption of Aadhaar as a government programme, it is tempting to think of its success as a ______________ to the Indian state’s uniquely coercive powers that it has _______________ and fine-tuned over the past decade thanks to increasing interlinkages between various aspects of our daily lives — from banking to booking a tatkal ticket.
(e)No combination fits
Directions (14-15): In each of the following sentence there are three blank spaces. Below each sentence there are five options and each option consists of three words which can be filled up in the blanks in the sentence to make the sentence grammatically correct.
Q14. With inflation-targeting as its main _______ — the consensus position that was articulated when the RBI Act was amended in May 2016 was that “price stability is a _________ precondition to sustainable growth” — the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) has opted yet again to keep interest rates ___________.
(a) confirmation, primary, modified
(b) uphold, assured, unrelieved
(c) mandate, necessary, unchanged
(d) support, radical, stabile
(e) consent, inherent, endured
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Q15. Ultimately, though, the central bank has once again ________ a word of circumspection to fiscal authorities: taken together, the farm loan waivers ________ by some States, the partial reduction of excise duty and VAT on petroleum products and the GST rate cuts could ________ in fiscal slippage with accompanying consequences for price stability.
(a) inflicted, provided, neglect
(b) proffered, implemented, result
(c) imposed, generated, occur
(d) expected, assembled, transpire
(e) intended, managed, appear
S1. Ans. (a)
Sol. Option (a) is the correct choice. Here, the author has already discussed the problem of the air pollution and supported it with the facts produced by Lancet Commission and a study by Indian Journal of Pediatrics. He stated air pollution to be an emergency in the previous statement thus the next statement to complete this paragraph should be the action required to curb the problem of pollution.
S2. Ans. (d)
Sol. Option (d) is the correct choice. Here, the author has just described about the external efforts taken by humans for the peace of their minds. Thus, the next statement to complete the paragraph should be about the results of these efforts undertaken by the individuals. This is aptly described in option (d).
S3. Ans. (e)
Sol. In this paragraph, future economic growth has been discussed, that depends on the young generation. The sentences before the blank talks about the wide gap between productive labour force and the employment and entrepreneurial opportunities available. The success of the fourth Industrial Revolution has also been discussed. Hence the blank must be filled the sentence related to the economic condition. Going through all the sentences, we can infer that sentence (e) goes correctly with the paragraph that talks about the large-scale disruption causing economic turmoil. Hence sentence (e) is the correct choice.
S4. Ans. (b)
Sol. Here the theme of the paragraph revolves around the global economy depending upon the investment, trade and industrial production. The sentences before the blank is about the statistics of GDP growth in 2017 from 2016 whereas the sentences after the blank talks about the expected growth of export from previous year. Hence the blank must be filled by the sentence related to this economic growth. After reading all the sentences, we find that sentence (b) goes in agreement with the passage talking about the pick up of GDP, as discussed in its above sentence, which is expected to be broad based across both advanced and emerging market. Hence option (b) is the correct choice.
S5. Ans. (b)
Sol. The paragraph talks about the unavailability of land to the Kyrgystan’s citizens that is supposed to provide free to every citizen under Kyrgyz law. Hence the blank must be filled by the sentence related to this theme. Going through all the sentences, we can conclude that sentence (b) goes in harmony with the paragraph talking about the attractive and expensive land because of plot scarcity in Bishkek. Hence option (b) is the correct choice.
S6. Ans. (d)
Sol. ‘welcome’ will be the correct use instead of ‘welcoming’. The incident has already happened in the past, as indicated by the word ‘grew’.
S7. Ans. (a)
Sol. ‘sufferable’ is wrong here. Some positive word must come here as the sentence is talking about consequence of making productive use of audit trails created by the goods and services tax.
‘sustainable’ will be the correct word which means able to be maintained at a certain rate or level.
S8. Ans. (c)
Sol. ‘supplementing’ will be the correct use instead of ‘supplements’ as supplementing is a participle phrase. The word “supplementing” means “which supplements”.
S9. Ans. (a)
Sol. ‘holds’ is the correct use instead of ‘hold’ as the subject of the sentence ‘this’ is singular.
S10. Ans. (e)
Sol. All the four words are correctly used and are in the context of the paragraph
S11. Ans. (d)
Sol. The combination of II-V i.e. “inclusive, equated” fits into the blanks respectively. Other combinations are unfit to the given blanks.
Inclusive means including all the services or items normally expected or required.
Equated means considered (one thing) to be the same as or equivalent to another.
Correspondent means corresponding.
S12. Ans. (c)
Sol. The combination of I-II i.e. “varied, seldom” fits into the blanks respectively and thus adds meaning to the sentence contextually. Other combinations are unfit to the given blanks.
Varied means incorporating a number of different types or elements; showing variation or variety.
Seldom means not often; rarely.
Often means frequently; many times.
Disparate means essentially different in kind; not able to be compared.
Extended means made larger; enlarged.
S13. Ans. (b)
Sol. The combination of V-II i.e. “testament, accrued” fits into the blanks respectively. They provide an appropriate meaning to the sentence. Other combinations are unfit to the given blanks.
Testament means something that serves as a sign or evidence of a specified fact, event, or quality.
Accrued means accumulated or received (payments or benefits) over time.
Tribute means an act, statement, or gift that is intended to show gratitude, respect, or admiration.
Ensued means happened or occurred afterwards or as a result.
S14. Ans. (c)
Sol. ‘mandate, necessary, unchanged’ is the correct set of words making the sentence meaningful.
S15. Ans. (b)
Sol. ‘proffered, implemented, result’ is the correct set of words making the sentence meaningful.
Proffered means hold out or put forward (something) to someone for acceptance.
Inflicted means cause (something unpleasant or painful) to be suffered by someone or something.
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