Directions (1-5): Each of the following questions has a paragraph from which one sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
Q1. While campaigning for the BJP during Assam’s assembly elections last year, Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid emphasis on reducing poaching in the Kaziranga National Park. The Sarbananda Sonowal-led BJP government has tried to do justice to the party’s election plank and the Centre has reportedly lent support to its endeavours. In the second week of February, it sanctioned the use of drones for vigilance in Kaziranga. However, while the government’s concern about poaching in the park that houses the highest number of one-horned rhinos in the world is understandable, it has often been knee-jerk in its methods. On Tuesday, the environment ministry recommended blacklisting BBC journalist, Justin Rowlatt, who showed the anti-poaching measures in poor light. (____________________).
(a)The conservation success has, however, spawned problems.
(b) The ministry has found Killing for conservation, a documentary directed by him, to be “grossly erroneous”.
(c)Other reports have, in the past, accused officers and guards of Assam’s forest department of being trigger-happy.
(d)Kaziranga’s understaffed forest department — reports estimate the shortfall to be anything between 15 per cent to 25 per cent — has often found itself out manoeuvred by poachers.
(e)Rhinos compete with themselves and other herbivores for increasingly declining food reserves.
Q2. Space projects are long-term and span multiple governments. But the prime minister’s applause for the Indian Space Research Organisation’s achievements like the Mangalyaan mission may have given fresh energy to the launch vehicle programme.______________. The polar launch vehicle which has now placed 104 (almost all foreign) satellites in orbit is the result of a shrewd focus on launch services, which are in short supply. Demand will increase as satellite swarms and cheap personalised devices become popular, and bulk launchers like ISRO can look forward to a window of opportunity.
(a) But the window will close when entrepreneurs like Elon Musk begin to offer reusable launch vehicles which glide back to earth.
(b) Satellite communications networks generate remote sensing and GPS data and deliver media, telecommunications and telemedicine.
(c) These will slash launch costs dramatically, while ISRO’s own reusable vehicle Avatar remains on the drawing board.
(d) Space industries are perceived to work mainly for the national interest, but the commercial possibilities are immense.
(e) ISRO has established a solid reputation as a cheap but reliable bulk carrier of satellites to earth orbit.
Q3. Weddings costing more than Rs.5 lakhs are not all same across the board. They are treated as significant life events to be attended by friends and far and wide extended family of the bride and the groom. To many, this endearingly makes them perfect occasions for reunions. Some families don’t mind investing heavily for once in providing for their guests, to make it a memorable, well-catered family event for all. In some progressive cases, both parties – bride’s and groom’s – agree to split the check for mutual merriment._______________.
(a)In other words, spending above the specified amount can take place even if it is not oriented towards external extravaganza or dowry pressure.
(b)A legal fix for a social issue is a hard sell in pragmatic situations, as it proposes to regulate a strictly private affair of citizens.
(c)Such a trend amounts to a social malaise in the ever-inflating balloon of wedding expenses, as the money can be invested in better, beneficial causes.
(d)The bill states that if a family spends above Rs.5 lakh on a wedding, it should contribute 10 per cent of that amount for marriages of girls from poor families.
(e)While well-intentioned, an “enforcement” on how to solemnise a wedding is not democratic in nature.
Q4. We talk a lot about the demographic dividend we are about to get, but less about how to convert all that talent into the skills that we need. In particular, our entire system of higher education is desperately short of teachers; most new business schools and engineering schools survive on part-time professors who travel from institution to institution, delivering bread and butter courses._____________________. This is despite the fact that salaries have risen substantially in recent years — the problem is that the private sector demand for the kinds of people we want as professors is also growing fast, potentially even faster. In other words, we should not expect this problem to fix itself any time soon.
(a)There will of course need to be multiple such lectures, in multiple languages and at multiple levels.
(b)The idea is to make getting advanced credentials easier and cheaper without diluting the content.
(c) Even the best colleges, universities and institutes have large numbers of jobs at the professorial level that have been unfilled for years.
(d)But we are still talking about a few hundred basic physics or economics lectures, not several hundred thousand.
(e)Simply delivering content from a pulpit is not the most effective way to communicate with students.
Q5. There are two common sources used in the criminal cases for determining the age of a child — documentary and biological. Documentary evidence is where the birth of the child is entered in a book to be maintained by a credible agency. Biological evidence is obtained from a medical examination specifically oriented towards determining the age of a child. ___________________.
(a) The main objective of the defence counsel is to cast suspicion in the recorded date of birth and to prove that the girl is not a minor.
(b) The burden of proving the age of the victim is on the prosecution and there is no standard procedure to guide the police.
(c) Determining age on the basis of an ossification test shall be resorted to only in the absence of the above certificates.
(d) However, as a medical test cannot determine the precise age, it is considered only in the absence of other evidence.
(e) It says that the date of birth certificate from the school or matriculation or the equivalent certificate from the concerned examination board shall be the preferred evidence for determining age.
Directions (6-7): Choose the most logical order of sentences among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.
A. Ludwig originally studied engineering, first in Berlin and then in Manchester, where he became interested in the design of aeroplane propellors. At this time he developed a deep interest in mathematics and its foundations.
B. Wittgenstein was born in 1889 into one of Austria’s richest families. His father was a self-made industrialist who built his fortune in iron and steel; his mother came from a Prague Jewish family.
C. Even the life of Martin Heidegger, with his controversial Nazi connections and his later attempt to live the authentic life of a peasant, looks dull and suburban by comparison.
D. Ludwig was the youngest of eight siblings – he had three sisters and four brothers. Tragedy hit the family again and again. Three of Ludwig’s brothers committed suicide.
E. The fourth, Paul, was a concert pianist who lost his right arm in the First World War and later commissioned works for the left hand from Ravel, Prokofiev, Paul Hindemith and Erich Korngold.
F. Among all twentieth-century thinkers, Ludwig Wittgenstein stands out as the one whose life fascinates almost as much as his work does.
G. Wittgenstein had a huge impact on the intellectual scene there, but throughout his life he claimed to dislike Cambridge and preferred to spend time writing and thinking in remote, isolated places.
H. Having studied the ground-breaking works of philosophy of mathematics by Bertrand Russell and Gottlob Frege, he visited Frege in Jena who advised him to study with Russell in Cambridge.
A. If it was a deeply distressing or disturbing time in your life, you are allowed to have feelings about it.
B. This is true for most situations. There is almost always something worse that could have happened.
C. The point is not how easy you got off, it is how the situation impacted you. How it impacted your life and the lives of your loved ones. How it still remains with you.
D. People do not want to take on the label because it is embarrassing or because they think, “Others have had it worse, who am I to complain?
E. Many people brush away the wounds of their past by saying, “It could have been worse.”
F. It looks different for different people. It impacts different people differently.
G. Many people want to downplay the impact that a traumatic event has had on them.
Directions (8-9): Read the passage given below and solve the questions based on it.
Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land masses, the great variety of plants in Hawaii must be a result of the long-distance dispersal of seeds, a process that requires both a method of transport and on equivalence between the ecology of the source area and that of the recipient area.
There is some dispute about the method of transport involved. Some biologists argue that ocean and air currents are responsible for the temperature of plant seeds to Hawaii. Yet the results of flotation experiments and the low temperatures of air currents cast doubt on these hypotheses. More probable is bird transport, either externally, by accidently attachment of the seeds to feathers, or internally, by the swallowing of fruit and subsequent excretion of the seeds. While it is likely that fewer varieties of plant seeds have reached Hawaii externally than internally, more vacancies are known to be adapted to external than to internal transport.
Q8.Author mentions the results of flotation experiments on plant seeds most probably in order to.
(a) Support the claim that the distribution of plants in Hawaii is the result of long distant dispersal of seeds.
(b) Lend credibility to the thesis that air currents provide a method of transport for plant seeds to Hawaii.
(c) Suggest that long distant dispersal of seeds is the result requires long periods of time.
(d) Challenge the claims that ocean currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii.
(e) None of these.
Q9. It can be inferred from information in the passage that the existence in alpine regions of Hawaii of a plant species that also grows in the southwestern United States would justify which of the following conclusions.
(a) the ecology of southwestern United State is similar in important aspects to the ecology of the alpine regions of Hawaii.
(b) There are ocean currents that flow to south western United States to Hawaii.
(c) The plant species discovered in Hawaii must have travelled from the southwestern United States only very recently.
(d) The plant species discovered in Hawaii reached there by attaching to the feathers of the birds migrating from the southwestern United States.
(e) None of these.
Directions (10): In each of the following question five options are given, of which one word is most nearly the same or opposite in meaning to the given word in the question. Find the correct option having either same or opposite meaning.
Directions (11-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Enunciated by Jung as an integral part of his psychology in 1916 immediately after his unsettling confrontation with the unconscious, the transcendent function was seen by Jung as uniting the opposites, transforming psyche, and central to the individuation process. It also undoubtedly reflects his personal experience in coming to terms with the unconscious. Jung portrayed the transcendent function as operating through symbol and fantasy and mediating between the opposites of consciousness and the unconscious to prompt the emergence of a new, third posture that transcends the two. In exploring the details of the transcendent function and its connection to other Jungian constructs, this work has unearthed significant changes, ambiguities, and inconsistencies in Jung’s writings. Further, it has identified two separate images of the transcendent function: (1) the narrow transcendent function, the function or process within Jung’s pantheon of psychic structures, generally seen as the uniting of the opposites of consciousness and the unconscious from which a new attitude emerges; and (2) the expansive transcendent function, the root metaphor for psyche or being psychological that subsumes Jung’s pantheon and that apprehends the most fundamental psychic activity of interacting with the unknown or other. This book has also posited that the expansive transcendent function, as the root metaphor for exchanges between conscious and the unconscious, is the wellspring from whence flows other key Jungian structures such as the archetypes and the Self, and is the core of the individuation process. The expansive transcendent function has been explored further by surveying other schools of psychology, with both depth and non-depth orientations, and evaluating the transcendent function alongside structures or processes in those other schools which play similar mediatory and/or transitional roles.
Q11. The above passage is most likely an excerpt from:
(a) A research note
(b) An entry on a psychopathology blog
(c) A popular magazine article
(d) A scholarly treatise
(e) A newspaper article
Q12. It can be definitely inferred from the passage above that
(a) The expansive transcendent function would include elements of both the Consciousness and the Unconscious.
(b) Archetypes emerge from the narrow transcendent function.
(c) The whole work, from which this excerpt is taken, primarily concerns itself with the inconsistencies in Jung’s writings.
(d) Jung’s pantheon of concepts subsumes the root metaphor of psyche.
(e) The transcendent is the core of the individuation process.
Q13. A comparison similar to the distinction between the two images of the transcendent function would be:
(a) raucous: hilarious
(b) synchronicity: ontology
(c) recession: withdrawal
(d) penurious: decrepit
(e) none of the above
Q14. As per the passage, the key Jungian structure – other than the Self – that emerges from the expansive transcendent function may NOT be expressed as a(n):
(c) Idealized model
(d) Original pattern
Q15. Choose the word most similar in meaning to the word “Posit” as used in the passage.
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S1. Ans. (b)
Sol. The paragraph talks about government’s endeavor to reduce poaching in the Kaziranga national park during Assam’s assembly elections, use of drones for vigilance and blacklisting a journalist for showing anti-poaching measures. After going through all given sentences, it can be concluded that only sentence (b) forms concluding part of the paragraph as it talks about the perception of the ministry regarding documentary directed by that journalist. Hence sentence (b) is the correct choice.
S2. Ans. (e)
Sol. After reading the paragraph and given options, we can conclude that sentence (e) fits to the paragraph. The paragraph talks about ISRO that has established its presence in the booming launch vehicle market and now it is the time to start spinning off products and services. Sentence (e) is correct choice as it tells about the ISRO’s achievement as a cheap and reliable bulk carrier of satellites to the earth’s orbit.
S3. Ans. (a)
Sol. The paragraph revolves around the theme of Weddings costs that is treated as significant for reunions and some families who don’t mind spending more. After going through the options, we find that sentence (a) goes with the connection of the paragraph as it talks about spending above specified amount if there is no dowry pressure. Hence sentence (a) is true in context of the paragraph.
S4. Ans. (c)
Sol. The paragraph talks about converting the talent into skill. It is about Higher education that can be made easier and cheaper without diluting content. Going through the options, we find that sentence (c) connects with the paragraph as it talks about the unfilled jobs in best colleges, universities and institutes. Hence sentence (c) is relevant in context of the paragraph.
S5. Ans. (d)
Sol. The theme of the paragraph revolves around two sources used in criminal cases for determining the age of a child i.e. documentary and biological. After going through all sentences, we find that sentence (d) fits as a concluding part of the paragraph as it tells that medical test for determining age will not be precise. Hence option (d) is true in context of the paragraph. Other sentences are irrelevant.
Sol. As it is given in the passage that – Some biologists argue that ocean and air currents are responsible for the temperature of plant seeds to Hawaii. Yet the results of flotation experiments and the low temperatures of air currents cast doubt on these hypotheses. So, the answer is option d. Other options are not true as per the content in the given in the passage. Hence the answer is option d.
Sol. The existence in alpine regions of Hawaii of a plant species that also grows in the southwestern United States would justify the ecology of the southwestern United States is similar in important respects to the ecology of alpine regions of Hawaii, that is option a. Option b is not true according to the passage, also options c and d are not true as they are not related to alpine regions. Hence the answer is option (a)
Sol. Incognito means (of a person) having one’s true identity concealed hence covert is the word most similar in meaning.
S11. Ans. (c)
Sol. The article is the review of a book likely to appear in a popular magazine article.
S12. Ans. (a)
Sol. The option is indicated in the sentence beginning with “This book has also posited…”. While option (d) is directly stated in the passage and option (c) is wrong in that apart from inconsistencies the book also reveals changes and ambiguities; the other options are wrong.
S13. Ans. (b)
Sol. As narrow transcendent function forms a part of expansive transcendent function, so is synchronicity which is a part of ontology, a branch of metaphysical study.
S14. Ans. (b)
Sol. The key Jungian structure does not go against the expansive transcendent pattern, though its paradigm of function changes. Hence (b) is the correct option.
S15. Ans. (e)
Sol. Posit means put forward as fact or as a basis for argument. Propound means put forward (an idea or theory) for consideration by others. Hence both are similar in meanings.
Reprobate means express or feel disapproval of.
Outcast means a person who has been rejected or ostracized by their society or social group.
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