English Language Quiz for Prelims Exams- SBI & IBPS 2020- 28th November

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

JUSTICE VIKRAMJIT SEN, A RETIRED JUDGE of the Supreme Court, once observed during the hearing of a case in 2015: “India is a secular country, but I don’t know how long it will remain so.” A sense of exasperation might have been behind his observation, but events since then could make one wonder whether the judge’s remark was meant to shake up those who are complacent about the future of secularism in India.

There is no denying the fact that India’s unique brand of secularism, despite being subjected to various stresses and strains, has proved resilient. India’s brand of secularism is a complex mix of constitutional provisions that guarantee all persons freedom of conscience and the right to free profession, practice and propagation of religion; the freedom to manage religious affairs; the freedom from being compelled to pay taxes to promote a particular religion; and protection of the interests of minorities. But the enforcement of these provisions, in practice, has given rise to a number of challenges from both the state and non-state actors. One only needs to read contemporary news headlines to understand the severity of these challenges to secularism. They appear insurmountable partly because India’s unique brand of secularism has not been sufficiently understood either by its contemporary rulers or by civil society.

India’s Constitution-makers did not feel the need to explain the unique brand, leaving it to lawmakers and the courts to make sense of it through constitutional provisions. Therefore, it is not surprising that the word “secularism” does not find mention in the original Constitution. As secularism finds expression in a number of constitutional provisions, the Constitution-makers rightly thought it unnecessary to proclaim India a secular Republic even in the Preamble. Besides, secularism being a complex term defied easy definition; therefore, putting it in the Preamble without defining it elsewhere would lend the term to various interpretations not originally envisaged by the Constitution-makers. So it was believed at the time of the making of the Constitution. But Parliament’s insertion of the word “secular” along with the word “socialist” to describe the Indian Republic in the Preamble during the Emergency (1975-77) was, to infer from the debates, aimed at emphasising the “larger objective”. That it was conceived by the rulers as just an objective in the mid 1970s showed that the country was still far from realising it fully.

A.R. Antulay, a Congress Member of the Rajya Sabha who participated in the debate then, explained why the Constitution-makers had not included the word secularism in the original Constitution: “Maybe, the conditions and circumstances, then prevailing, were not favourable. The split in the Congress in the wake of Partition and immediately after Independence, the country could not have afforded, perhaps the newly won independence would have been lost. Pandit Nehru, himself a personification of secularism and himself of socialist conviction must have sensed that…. [a] split within the Congress over socialistic and secular lines immediately after Partition, immediately after Independence, would have meant the loss of independence, perhaps.”

Q1. Which of the following statements does not form the part of the given passage?
(a)India’s unique brand of secularism is very difficult to comprehend especially by its contemporary rulers and civil society.
(b)Many believed that the inclusion of the word secularism in the Preamble would create the right atmosphere to urge minorities to play a positive role in the development and progress of the nation.
(c)India’s brand of secularism is a complex mix of constitutional provisions that guarantee all persons freedom of conscience and the right to free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
(d) It was feared that secularism being a complex term would lend to various interpretations that might contradict what originally envisioned by the Constitution-makers.
(e)None of the above.

Q2. Why according to the passage did the Constitution-makers avoid defining the term “secularism” in the Preamble?
(I)The term “secularism” was so sophisticated that the Constitution-makers found it difficult to define it smoothly.
(II)The Constitution-makers worried that without defining the term in the Preamble would lend it to various explanations that might differ what originally envisaged by them.
(III)The conditions and circumstances prevailing during that period were unfavourable to make any such move to define the most important term in the Preamble.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (II) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (III) are correct
(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q3. What are the provisions related to Secularism mentioned in the Constitution?
(I)It guarantees all persons freedom of conscience and the right to free profession.
(II)It guarantees practice and propagation of religion and protection of the interests of minorities.
(III)It guarantees the freedom to manage religious affairs.
(IV)It guarantees the freedom from being compelled to pay taxes to promote a particular religion.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(c)Only (I), (II) and (IV) are correct
(d)Only (II), (III) and (IV) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q4. Why according to the passage the rising challenges to secularism seem invincible?
(a)India’s unique brand of secularism has not been sufficiently understood either by its contemporary rulers or by civil society.
(b)India’s Constitution-makers did not feel the need to explain the meaning of the term and left it to lawmakers and the courts to decide the same through constitutional provisions.
(c)The government abandoned its move to define the term, conceding the reservations expressed by the Members of Parliament during the debate on the subject.
(d)Parliament has failed in its obligation to see that equal opportunities are afforded to the minorities so that they may develop equally and thus enable us to establish a welfare society in this country.
(e)All are true.

Q5. What led the judge of the Supreme Court to state “India is a secular country, but I don’t know how long it will remain so”?

(I)The Judge felt that people have become complacent about the future of secularism in India.
(II)There were certain events that challenged the existence of secularism in the Constitution.
(III)The Judge was pleased by the issues related to the case he was hearing in 2015.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(c)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(d)None is correct
(e)All are correct

Q6. What does author mean by the term “larger objective” in context of the passage?
(I) Secularism is a priceless objective to strive for and defend given the grim challenges it faces from non-state actors, often with the connivance of the state.
(II)The insertion of the word “secular” along with the word “socialist” to describe the Indian Republic in the Preamble was visualized as a larger objective.
(III)The government envisioned that the objective of secularism could actually limit the steps envisaged in the Constitution to ensure the freedom and protection of minorities.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (II) is correct
(c)Only (III) is correct
(d)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(e)All are correct

Direction (7-8): Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in passage.

Q7. Conceive
(a)Harmonize
(b)Consolidate
(c)Perceive
(d)Integrate
(e)Penetrate

Q8. Exasperation
(a)Tedious
(b)Scathing
(c)Quibbling
(d)Vexation
(e)Exigent

Direction (9-10): Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in passage.

Q9. Insurmountable
(a)Vulnerable
(b)Impervious
(c)Remote
(d)Elusive
(e)Dogged

Q10. Conviction
(a)Conjecture
(b)Dictum
(c)Dogma
(d)Assumption
(e)Doubt

Directions (11-15): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is ‘No error’, the answer is (e). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any.)

Q11. All of a sudden (a)/ Sudhir remembered that (b)/ he has not (c)/ locked the office. (d)/ No error. (e)
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
(e) E

Q12. I am sure that (a)/ all my monthly expenses (b)/ would exceed the income (c)/ if I do not economise. (d)/ No error. (e)
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
(e) E

Q13. Although their visas (a)/ will expire in September (b)/ they can have them (c)/ extended for six months. (d)/ No error. (e)
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
(e) E

Q14. Hardly as I stepped (a)/ out of my house when (b)/ I saw some policemen (c)/ coming towards my house.(d)/ No error. (e)
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
(e) E

Q15. The last of the Mughal (a)/ emperors of India was imprisoned (b)/ and was later sent into (c)/ exile by the British. (d)/ No error. (e)
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
(e) E

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Solutions

S1. Ans. (b)
Sol. Read the complete passage carefully. Statements (a), (c) and (d) can be easily accessed from the passage while statement (b) finds no relevance as it is not mentioned anywhere in the passage that the inclusion of the word secularism in the Preamble would create the right atmosphere to urge minorities to play a positive role in the development and progress of the nation. Hence only option (b) does not form the part of the passage.

S2. Ans. (e)
Sol. Refer the third and fourth paragraphs of the passage, all three reasons are well explained that led the Constitution-makers to avoid defining the term in the Preamble. Hence (e) is the correct option.

S3. Ans. (e)
Sol. Refer the second paragraph of the passage, “India’s brand of secularism is a complex mix of constitutional provisions that guarantee all persons freedom of conscience and the right to free profession, practice and propagation of religion; the freedom to manage religious affairs; the freedom from being compelled to pay taxes to promote a particular religion; and protection of the interests of minorities.” Hence all four statements are correct in context of the passage.

S4. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the second paragraph of the passage, “One only needs to read contemporary news headlines to understand the severity of these challenges to secularism. They appear insurmountable partly because India’s unique brand of secularism has not been sufficiently understood either by its contemporary rulers or by civil society.” Hence only option (a) is correct in context of the passage.

S5. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the first paragraph of the passage, “JUSTICE VIKRAMJIT SEN, A RETIRED JUDGE of the Supreme Court, once observed during the hearing of a case in 2015: “India is a secular country, but I don’t know how long it will remain so.” A sense of exasperation might have been behind his observation…” Hence only statement (I) is correct in context of the passage.

S6. Ans. (b)
Sol. Refer the second last sentence of the third paragraph, “But Parliament’s insertion of the word “secular” along with the word “socialist” to describe the Indian Republic in the Preamble during the Emergency (1975-77) was, to infer from the debates, aimed at emphasising the “larger objective”.” Hence only statement (II) is correct in context of the passage.

S7. Ans. (c)
Sol. Conceive means form a mental representation of; imagine. Hence “Perceive” is the word most similar in meaning to it.

S8. Ans. (d)
Sol. Exasperation means a feeling of intense irritation or annoyance. Vexation means the state of being annoyed, frustrated, or worried. Hence both are similar in meanings.
Exigent means pressing; demanding.
Tedious means too long, slow, or dull; tiresome or monotonous.
Quibbling means argue or raise objections about a trivial matter.

S9. Ans. (a)
Sol. Insurmountable means too great to be overcome. Hence “Vulnerable” is the word most opposite in meaning to it.
Impervious means unable to be affected by.

S10. Ans. (e)
Sol. Conviction means a firmly held belief or opinion. Hence “Doubt” is the word most opposite in meaning to it.
Conjecture means an opinion or conclusion formed on the basis of incomplete information.
Dictum means a formal pronouncement from an authoritative source.
Dogma means a principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true.

S11. Ans. (c)
Sol. Use ‘had’ in place of ‘has’ because past perfect is used for past form of incident.

S12. Ans. (b)
Sol. The use of ‘all’ is superfluous as ‘monthly expenses’ includes all types of expenses.

S13. Ans. (b)
Sol. ‘expire’ will be used in place of ‘will expire’ as for future fixed programme, simple present tense is used. Ex. The college re- opens on Monday.

S14. Ans. (a)
Sol. Use ‘had’ in place of ‘as’ as the syntax ‘Hardly+ had+ Subject+ V3’, ‘when + Subject + V2’ is used.
Ex. Hardly had I gone out when a friend of mine came.

S15. Ans. (c)
Sol. Use ‘on’ after ‘later’ as ‘later’ means ‘after’ while ‘later on’ means ‘afterwards’.

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