English Language Quiz For Bank Mains Exams 2021- 11th February

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage and answer the questions following it. Several alphabets are given to help u assist in answering those questions.

Any knowledge discipline is hard to define. Firstly, because it evolves continuously and secondly, because the range of (A) it studies cannot be captured by any one definition. This is even truer for psychology. The term psychology is derived from two Greek words psyche meaning soul and logos meaning science or study of a subject. Thus, psychology was a study of the soul or mind. (B)But since then it has moved away considerably from this focus and established itself as a scientific discipline who deals with processes underlying human experience and behaviour. The range of phenomena it studies are spread over several levels, viz. individual, dyadic (two person) group, and organisational. They also have biological as well as social bases. Naturally, therefore, the methods required to study them also vary greatly depending on the phenomenon one wants to study. A discipline is defined both in terms of what it studies and how it studies. In fact, more in terms of how or method/s it uses. (C) Keeping this in view, psychology is (1) experiences formally as a science which studies mental processes, (2) defined and (3) behaviour in different (4) contexts. In doing so, it uses methods of biological and social sciences to obtain data systematically. It makes sense of these data so that they can be organised as knowledge. Let us try to understand the three terms used in the definition, namely, mental processes, experience, and behaviour. When we say experiences are internal to the experiencing person, then we refer to (D) _____________________________________________________. We use our mental processes when we think or try to solve a problem, to know or remember something. One level at which these mental processes are (E) is the brain activity. As we think or solve a mathematical problem, our brain activities can be observed using different structure of brain imaging. However, we cannot say that brain activities and mental processes are the same, although they are (F) unallied. Mental activities and neural activities are mutually overlapping processes but, they are not identical. (G) Mind emerges and evolves as our interactions and experiences in this world get dynamically organised in the form of a system which is responsible for the occurrence of various mental processes. Brain activities provide important clues as to how our mind functions. (H) But the (1) neural of our own (2) experiences and mental processes are much more than the (3) consciousness or brain (4) activities. Even when we are asleep some mental activities go on. We dream, and receive some information such as a knock on the door while we are asleep. Some psychologists have shown that we also learn and remember in our sleep. (I) Mental processes, such as remembering, learning, knowing, perceiving, feeling are of interest to psychologists. They study these processes to try to understand how the mind works and to help us improve the uses and (J) of these mental capacities.

Q1. Which of the following words given in the options should come at the place marked as (A) in the above passage to make it grammatically correct and meaningful? Also, the word should fill in the two sentences given below to make them contextually correct and meaningful.
(i) Many of the __________________ of Winter are suggestive of an inexpressible tenderness and fragile delicacy.
(ii) In all his travels he studied only the _________________ of nature and human life.
(a) expansion
(b) phenomena
(c) abysmal
(d) arrogance
(e) compliance

Q2. In the above passage, a sentence B is given in Italics. There may or may not be an error in one part of the sentence. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer. If there is no error, then choose option (e) as your answer.
(a) But since then it has moved away considerably from this focus
(b) and established itself as a scientific discipline
(c) who deals with processes underlying
(d) human experience and behaviour
(e) No error

Q3. The sentence given in (C) has four words given in bold. Amongst the given bold words which of the followings must interchange to make the sentence grammatically and contextually correct and meaningful?
(a) 1-2
(b) 2-4
(c) 1-4
(d) 2-3
(e) 3-4

Q4. Which of the following phrases should fill the blank (D) to make it contextually and grammatically meaningful and correct respectively?
(a) subjectivity is a necessary aspect of human experience.
(b) psychology as a discipline today has two parallel streams.
(c) evolutionary approach which is dominant in physical sciences.
(d) states of consciousness or awareness or mental processes
(e) interesting cases that have been published.

Q5. Which of the following words given in the options should come at the place marked as ‘E’ in the above paragraph to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful and correct? Also, the word should fill the two sentences given below to make them contextually correct and meaningful?
(i) I suddenly saw myself ____________________ in a window pane and it startled me.
(ii) The shift in the balance of forces is also ____________________ in international finance.

(a) complaint
(b) reflected
(c) converted
(d) disguised
(e) forecasted

Q6. A word is given in bold in F. Choose the word which should replace the word given in bold to make the sentence correct and meaningful. If no change is required, choose option (e) as your answer.
(a) futile
(b) organised
(c) interdependent
(d) jumbled
(e) No change

Q7. Two sentences are given in italics on both sides of G. Which of the following statements can come in between the two sentences in place of G and maintain the continuity of the paragraph?
(a) Unlike the brain, the mind does not have a physical structure nor has a location.
(b) Developmental psychologists collaborate with anthropologists,
(c) Therefore behaviour should be studied in its socio-cultural context.
(d) The purpose is to develop general principles about behaviour and mental processes.
(e) psychologists make certain interventions into the lives of needy people.

Q8. The sentence given in H has four words given in bold. Amongst the given bold words, which of the followings must replace each other to make the sentence contextually correct and meaningful?
(a) 2-4
(b) 2-3
(c) 1-4
(d) 3-4
(e) 1-3

Q9. In the passage given, a sentence I is given in Italics. There may or may not be an error in one part of the sentence. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer.
(a) Mental processes, such as
(b) remembering, learning, knowing
(c) perceiving, feeling are of
(d) interest to psychologists
(e) No error

Q10. Which of the following words should fill the blank given in J to make it contextually correct and meaningful?
(a) illusions
(b) facades
(c) expenses
(d) applications
(e) predilection

Directions (11-15): Given below are five sentences of a paragraph in a jumbled fashion. Arrange the sentences to form a coherent paragraph and answer the following questions.
(E) Between 1977 and 1996, the power to impose presidential rule was exercised almost 59 times.
(A) Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s cabinet resorted to the power an estimated 50 times in her 14 years.
(D) The fact that it includes 15 instances between 1980 and 1984 after the Supreme Court held federalism a basic feature of the Constitution is quite telling.
(C) From 1991 till 2016, there have been 32 instances of the exercise of this power — compared to 92 instances in the preceding period.
(B) In S.R. Bommai v. Union of India (1994), the limitation laid down by the Supreme Court might have placed gentle breaks on exercise of this power, but the Centre continues to wield superior legislative powers, including residuary powers and legislative precedence.

Q11. What should be the Last sentence of the sequence?
(a) D
(b) A
(c) B
(d) C
(e) E

Q12. What should be the SECOND sentence of the sequence?
(a) D
(b) A
(c) B
(d) C
(e) E

Q13. What should be the FOURTH sentence of the final sequence?
(a) A
(b) E
(c) D
(d) B
(e) C

Q14. What should be the THIRD sentence of the final sequence?
(a) D
(b) A
(c) C
(d) B
(e) E

Q15. What should be the FIRST sentence of the final sequence?
(a) C
(b) D
(c) B
(d) E
(e) A

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Solutions

S1. Ans. (b)
Sol. Among the given words, “phenomena” fits aptly in the context of the passage as it means something that exists and can be seen, felt, tasted, etc., especially something unusual or interesting. All the other words are either contextually incoherent to the passage or they fail to fit in either of the sentences. Hence, option (b) becomes the most suitable answer choice.
Expansion means the action of becoming larger or more extensive.
Abysmal means extremely bad; appalling.
Arrogance means the quality of being arrogant.
Compliance means the action or fact of complying with a wish or command.

S2. Ans. (c)
Sol. There is an error in the phrase mentioned in option (c) “who deals with processes underlying”. “Who” should be replaced by “which” as the main difference between ‘who’ and ‘that’ or ‘which’ is that you should only use ‘who’ to refer to a person or people – who is never used to refer to things. However, ‘which’ or ‘that’ is used as a relative pronoun for things. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S3. Ans. (a)
Sol. The presence of the word ‘defined after ‘mental process’ separated through a comma, makes it incorrect. Also the word ‘experiences’ in its position is contextually incorrect. The positions of the words (3) and (4) are correct. Upon interchanging 1-2, we get a sentence which is grammatically and contextually meaningful and correct. Thus the correct sentence should be ‘Keeping this in view, psychology is (1) defined formally as a science which studies mental processes, (2) experiences and (3) behaviour in different (4) contexts.’
Hence, the option (a) is the correct answer.

S4. Ans. (d)
Sol. The earlier part of the sentence hints for the latter part of it as it mentions experiences are internal to person which means that they are in the internal consciousness of the person. The only phrase that fits in the context of the passage is “states of consciousness or awareness or mental processes”. All the other phrases/clauses are contextually irrelevant. Hence, option (d) becomes the most viable answer choice.

S5. Ans. (b)
Sol. Among the given words, “reflected” fits aptly in the context of the passage as it means think deeply or carefully about. The hint for the same can be drawn from the next sentence where it states “…our brain activities can be observed using different techniques of brain imaging…” All the other words are either contextually incoherent to the passage or they fail to fit in either of the sentences. Hence, option (b) becomes the most suitable answer choice.

S6. Ans. (c)
Sol. ‘Although’ in a sentence is used to introduce a contrasting clause. Since the earlier part of the sentence mentions that it is not definite to say mental processes and brain activities are same, the later part should mention something about their relation. Only option (c) satisfies this criterion, hence it becomes the most suitable answer choice.

S7. Ans. (a)
Sol. Among the given options, only option (a) gels well with the preceding and the following sentences of (G). The rests seem out-of-context. Both the preceding and following sentences of G explains the distinction between the mind activities and neural activities. Therefore, the option (a) sentence easily fits in the context of the passage continuing its theme.

S8. Ans. (e)
Sol. The position of the words “neural” and “consciousness” is incorrect as in the earlier part of the paragraph it has been mentioned that neural refers to the physical structure of the mind. Therefore, to define mental processes ‘neural’ becomes incoherent. Hence, swapping the words in position 1-3 frames a grammatically correct and contextually meaningful sentence. Hence, option (e) is the most suitable answer choice.

S9. Ans. (e)
Sol. The given sentence is grammatically correct and contextually meaningful and doesn’t require any changes. Hence, the option (e) ‘no error’ is the correct answer

S10. Ans. (d)
Sol. Among the given words, “applications” precisely replaces (J) to form a grammatically correct and contextually meaningful paragraph. The hint for the word may be drawn from phrase “uses and…” since the conjunction ‘and’ is used, it indicates that the other word should be something similar in the context. Hence, option (d) is the most suitable answer choice.

S11. Ans. (c)
Sol. The correct sequence is ‘EADCB’.
The sentence (E) informs us about the theme of the paragraph which is ‘instances of the exercising of presidential rule between 1977 and 1996’. So, the sentence (E) should be the first sentence of the final paragraph. The sentence (A) informs about how many times such exercising of presidential rule happened during the Prime Ministerial era of Mrs. Indira Gandhi. The occurrence of the pronoun ‘it’ in the sentence (D) suggests that there should exists a sentence prior the sentence (A) which would provide the antecedent for the pronoun ‘it’. Among the given sentences, only sentence (A) can provide the antecedent to the pronoun ‘it’ and the antecedent is the resorting to imposing presidential rule during the 14 years when Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. So, A-D should be a sub-sequence. Among the sentences (B) and (C), the sentence (C) talks about the time era between 1991 and 2016 and the exercising of the power to impose presidential rule during that time era. The sentence (C) gels well with the sub-sequence A-D, but the sentence (C) should trail the subsequence A-D because the sub-sequence A-D talks about an earlier time while the sentence (C) talks about the latter time. So, we get the sub-sequence ‘ADC’. The sentence (B) talks about an instance of legal battle on the issue and seems to provide a conclusion by informing us about the limitation laid down by the Supreme Court but still the continuance of wielding superior legislative power by the Centre. Hence, the sentence (B) should be the last sentence.
Hence, the correct sequence is ‘EADCB’ and the option (c) is the correct answer.

S12. Ans. (b)
Sol. The correct sequence is ‘EADCB’.
The sentence (E) informs us about the theme of the paragraph which is ‘instances of the exercising of presidential rule between 1977 and 1996’. So, the sentence (E) should be the first sentence of the final paragraph. The sentence (A) informs about how many times such exercising of presidential rule happened during the Prime Ministerial era of Mrs. Indira Gandhi. The occurrence of the pronoun ‘it’ in the sentence (D) suggests that there should exists a sentence prior the sentence (A) which would provide the antecedent for the pronoun ‘it’. Among the given sentences, only sentence (A) can provide the antecedent to the pronoun ‘it’ and the antecedent is the resorting to imposing presidential rule during the 14 years when Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. So, A-D should be a sub-sequence. Among the sentences (B) and (C), the sentence (C) talks about the time era between 1991 and 2016 and the exercising of the power to impose presidential rule during that time era. The sentence (C) gels well with the sub-sequence A-D, but the sentence (C) should trail the subsequence A-D because the sub-sequence A-D talks about an earlier time while the sentence (C) talks about the latter time. So, we get the sub-sequence ‘ADC’. The sentence (B) talks about an instance of legal battle on the issue and seems to provide a conclusion by informing us about the limitation laid down by the Supreme Court but still the continuance of wielding superior legislative power by the Centre. Hence, the sentence (B) should be the last sentence.
Hence, the correct sequence is ‘EADCB’ and the option (b) is the correct answer.

S13. Ans. (e)
Sol. The correct sequence is ‘EADCB’.
The sentence (E) informs us about the theme of the paragraph which is ‘instances of the exercising of presidential rule between 1977 and 1996’. So, the sentence (E) should be the first sentence of the final paragraph. The sentence (A) informs about how many times such exercising of presidential rule happened during the Prime Ministerial era of Mrs. Indira Gandhi. The occurrence of the pronoun ‘it’ in the sentence (D) suggests that there should exists a sentence prior the sentence (A) which would provide the antecedent for the pronoun ‘it’. Among the given sentences, only sentence (A) can provide the antecedent to the pronoun ‘it’ and the antecedent is the resorting to imposing presidential rule during the 14 years when Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. So, A-D should be a sub-sequence. Among the sentences (B) and (C), the sentence (C) talks about the time era between 1991 and 2016 and the exercising of the power to impose presidential rule during that time era. The sentence (C) gels well with the sub-sequence A-D, but the sentence (C) should trail the subsequence A-D because the sub-sequence A-D talks about an earlier time while the sentence (C) talks about the latter time. So, we get the sub-sequence ‘ADC’. The sentence (B) talks about an instance of legal battle on the issue and seems to provide a conclusion by informing us about the limitation laid down by the Supreme Court but still the continuance of wielding superior legislative power by the Centre. Hence, the sentence (B) should be the last sentence.
Hence, the correct sequence is ‘EADCB’ and the option (e) is the correct answer.

S14. Ans. (a)
Sol. The correct sequence is ‘EADCB’.
The sentence (E) informs us about the theme of the paragraph which is ‘instances of the exercising of presidential rule between 1977 and 1996’. So, the sentence (E) should be the first sentence of the final paragraph. The sentence (A) informs about how many times such exercising of presidential rule happened during the Prime Ministerial era of Mrs. Indira Gandhi. The occurrence of the pronoun ‘it’ in the sentence (D) suggests that there should exists a sentence prior the sentence (A) which would provide the antecedent for the pronoun ‘it’. Among the given sentences, only sentence (A) can provide the antecedent to the pronoun ‘it’ and the antecedent is the resorting to imposing presidential rule during the 14 years when Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. So, A-D should be a sub-sequence. Among the sentences (B) and (C), the sentence (C) talks about the time era between 1991 and 2016 and the exercising of the power to impose presidential rule during that time era. The sentence (C) gels well with the sub-sequence A-D, but the sentence (C) should trail the subsequence A-D because the sub-sequence A-D talks about an earlier time while the sentence (C) talks about the latter time. So, we get the sub-sequence ‘ADC’. The sentence (B) talks about an instance of legal battle on the issue and seems to provide a conclusion by informing us about the limitation laid down by the Supreme Court but still the continuance of wielding superior legislative power by the Centre. Hence, the sentence (B) should be the last sentence.
Hence, the correct sequence is ‘EADCB’ and the option (a) is the correct answer.

S15. Ans. (d)
Sol. The correct sequence is ‘EADCB’.
The sentence (E) informs us about the theme of the paragraph which is ‘instances of the exercising of presidential rule between 1977 and 1996’. So, the sentence (E) should be the first sentence of the final paragraph. The sentence (A) informs about how many times such exercising of presidential rule happened during the Prime Ministerial era of Mrs. Indira Gandhi. The occurrence of the pronoun ‘it’ in the sentence (D) suggests that there should exists a sentence prior the sentence (A) which would provide the antecedent for the pronoun ‘it’. Among the given sentences, only sentence (A) can provide the antecedent to the pronoun ‘it’ and the antecedent is the resorting to imposing presidential rule during the 14 years when Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. So, A-D should be a sub-sequence. Among the sentences (B) and (C), the sentence (C) talks about the time era between 1991 and 2016 and the exercising of the power to impose presidential rule during that time era. The sentence (C) gels well with the sub-sequence A-D, but the sentence (C) should trail the subsequence A-D because the sub-sequence A-D talks about an earlier time while the sentence (C) talks about the latter time. So, we get the sub-sequence ‘ADC’. The sentence (B) talks about an instance of legal battle on the issue and seems to provide a conclusion by informing us about the limitation laid down by the Supreme Court but still the continuance of wielding superior legislative power by the Centre. Hence, the sentence (B) should be the last sentence.
Hence, the correct sequence is ‘EADCB’ and the option (d) is the correct answer.

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