English Language Quiz for ECGC PO 2021- 11th February

Directions (1-10); Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

A spot of sunshine is all it could take to clean your clothes within minutes, as scientists, including those of Indian-origin, have developed a low-cost, efficient way to grow nanostructures on textiles that can degrade organic matter when exposed to light. The research from RMIT University in Australia paves the way towards nano-enhanced textiles that can spontaneously clean themselves of stains and grime simply by being put under a light bulb or worn out in the Sun. The process developed by the team has a variety of applications for catalysis-based industries such as agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and natural products, and could be easily scaled up to industrial levels.

“The advantage of textiles is they already have a 3D structure so they are great at absorbing light, which in turn speeds up the process of degrading organic matter,” Rajesh Ramanathan from RMIT University said. “There’s more work to do to before we can start throwing out our washing machines, but this advance lays a strong foundation for the future development of fully self-cleaning textiles,” he said.

The researchers including Dipesh Kumar and Vipul Bansal, also from RMIT University, worked with copper and silver-based nanostructures, which are known for their ability to absorb visible light. When the nanostructures are exposed to light, they receive an energy boost that creates “hot electrons.” These “hot electrons” release a burst of energy that enables the nanostructures to degrade organic matter. The challenge for researchers has been to bring the concept out of the lab by working out how to build these nanostructures on an industrial scale and permanently attach them to textiles.

The team’s approach was to grow the nanostructures directly onto the textiles by dipping them into a few solutions, resulting in the development of stable nanostructures within 30 minutes. When exposed to light, it took less than six minutes for some of the nano-enhanced textiles to spontaneously clean themselves. “Our next step will be to test our nano-enhanced textiles with organic compounds that could be more relevant to consumers, to see how quickly they can handle common stains like tomato sauce or wine,” Mr. Ramanathan said.

Q1. Which of the following option(s) is/are TRUE in the context of the given passage?
i) 3D structures have ability to absorb light.
ii) Nanostructures take 36 minutes to clean themselves.
iii) We are on the verge of a new revolution in textile industry.
(a) only (i)
(b) only (ii)
(c) only (iii)
(d) both (i) and (ii)
(e) all (i), (ii) and (iii)

Q2. Which of the following option(s) is/are NOT TRUE in the context of the given passage?
(i) Nano-enhanced textiles take a few fours to clean themselves.
(ii) Nanostructure textiles are cost efficient.
(iii) All the metal-based nanostructures have the ability to absorb visible light.
(a) only (i)
(b) only (ii)
(c) only (iii)
(d) both (i) and (iii)
(e) all (i), (ii) and (iii)

Q3. What can be inferred from the given passage?
(a) The discovery of new textile is significant for various industries.
(b) Metals are generally good conductors of heat.
(c) We need less water for cleaning Nanostructure textiles.
(d) Three dimensional structures are not so good at absorbing the light.
(e) None of these.

Q4. What does the phrase ‘scaled up’ mean?
(a) To enhance the quality of something.
(b) To reduce proportionally
(c) To make something larger
(d) To measure something
(e) To reduce the scope or extent of something according to a standard.

Q5. Which of the following can be the title of the given passage.
(a) Soon, clothes that can clean themselves with light.
(b) Time to dump the washing machines
(c) Water conserving natural fibers
(d) Revolutionary fibers
(e) Research from RMIT University

Q6. According to the given passage what to you mean by Catalysis-based industries?
(a) Catal based
(b) Bovine based
(c) Chemical based
(d) Indigo based
(e) None of these

Directions (7-8): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

Q7. Relevant
(a) Trifling
(b) Diminutive
(c) Harmonious
(d) Significant
(e) Incompatible

Q8. Spontaneously
(a) Immediately
(b) Eventually
(c) Impromptu
(d) Improvise
(e) Extemporize

Directions (9-10): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

Q9. Grime
(a) Cleanliness
(b) Soot
(c) Gloomy
(d) Smirk
(e) Grin

Q10. Degrade
(a) Capsize
(b) Decline
(c) Pique
(d) Impair
(e) Strengthen

Directions (11-15): Rearrange the following six sentences/group of sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph; then answer the questions given below.
(A) Some of my most cherished memories are of my puppies fighting with cushions, the sun playing hide ’n’ seek with the clouds, or me racing for that last bite of the dessert.
(B) Photos are a return ticket to memories otherwise lost. Much like a forgotten song on the radio or a specific scent, photographs help us travel back in time.
(C) They help me smile on a bad day and laugh out loud on a good one. One thing they most certainly do is turn your home into a cosy haven of love and joy.
(D) These moments stay captured through the lens of my old Polaroid. I’ve framed them, stuck them on the refrigerator and inside cupboard doors.
(E) The most beautiful things in life are rarely just things. Instead, they are people, places, memories, and pictures – odd selfies and awkward angles included.
(F) I call myself a ‘click-happy’ person. My thumb is permanently placed on the click button, lest the crazy grin on my son’s face disappears.

Q11. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after the rearrangement?
(a) D
(b) F
(c) A
(d) E
(5) C

Q12. Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after the rearrangement?
(a) A
(b) D
(c) F
(d) B
(e) E

Q13. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after the rearrangement?
(a) E
(b) B
(c) D
(d) C
(e) F

Q14. Which of the following should be the SIXTH (LAST) sentence after the rearrangement?
(a) A
(b) D
(c) F
(d) E
(e) C

Q15. Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence after the rearrangement?
(a) E
(b) D
(c) B
(d) C
(e) F

Practice More Questions of English for Competitive Exams:

English for Competitive Exams
English Language Quiz for ECGC PO 2021- 10th February
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Solutions

S1. Ans. (a)
Sol. It is given in the third paragraph, that ‘’ The advantage of textiles is they already have a 3D structure so they are great at absorbing light, which in turn speeds up the process of degrading organic matter’’ from this we may infer that 3D structures are good absorber of light. Hence, (i) is true. According to the given passage it takes 30 minutes to prepare nanostructures and 6 minutes for the same to spontaneously clean themselves. Hence (ii) is not true. No such revolution has been discussed in the given passage, hence, (iii) is also not true. Hence, (a) is the correct option.

S2. Ans. (d)
Sol. It is given in the passage that nano-enhanced textiles can clean themselves in 6 minutes. Hence, (i) is not true. It is mentioned in the first paragraph that the newly developed textile is of low cost. Hence, we can infer that (ii) is true. The passage throws light on the light-absorbing property of only two metal-based nanostructures (copper and silver) but from this information, we cannot infer that all the metal-based nanostructures have the ability to absorb visible light. Hence, (iii) is also not true. Hence, (d) is the correct option.

S3. Ans. (a)
Sol. It is given in the first paragraph that “The process developed by the team has a variety of applications for catalysis-based industries such as agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and natural products, and could be easily scaled up to industrial levels.’’ this sentence shows the significance of the newly developed polymer in various industries. Please note that although option (b) is a universal fact, yet it can’t be inferred from the given passage. Hence, (b) is not the correct option. According to the passage we do not need water to clean nanostructures. Hence (c) is also not true. Similarly, it is given in the second paragraph that ‘advantage of textiles is they already have a 3D structure so they are great at absorbing light.’. Hence, (d) is also not correct Hence (a) is the correct option.

S4. Ans. (c)
Sol. ‘Scale up’ means ‘To make something large in size, especially a design or model’. Hence, (c) is the correct option.

S5. Ans. (a)
Sol. The entire passage envisages about the future polymers having the ability to clean themselves with sunlight. Option (b) cannot be the correct option as it is specifically given in the passage that ‘’ There’s more work to do to before we can start throwing out our washing machines’’ so this title is not apt. Similarly no other option sums up the given passage. Hence, (a) is the correct option.

S6. Ans. (c)
Sol. The ‘Chemical based industries’ are called the ‘Catalysis-based’ industries. Hence, (c) is the correct option.

S7. Ans. (d)
Sol. ‘Relevant’ means ‘closely connected or appropriate to the matter in hand.’ Hence, ‘significant’ is the word which is most similar in meaning to it.

S8. Ans. (a)
Sol. ‘Spontaneously’ means ‘performed or occurring as a result of a sudden impulse or inclination’. Hence, ‘Immediately’ is the word which is most similar in meaning to it.

S9. Ans. (a)
Sol. ‘Grime’ means ‘dirt ingrained on the surface of something.’. Hence ‘cleanliness’ is the word which is most opposite in meaning to it.

S10. Ans. (e)
Sol. ‘Degrade’ means ‘break down’. Hence ‘strengthen’ is the word which is most opposite in meaning to it.

S11. Ans. (c)
Sol. The correct sequence to form meaningful paragraph is EBFADC.

S12. Ans. (d)
Sol. The correct sequence to form meaningful paragraph is EBFADC.

S13. Ans. (a)
Sol. The correct sequence to form meaningful paragraph is EBFADC.

S14. Ans. (e)
Sol. The correct sequence to form meaningful paragraph is EBFADC.

S15. Ans. (b)
Sol. The correct sequence to form meaningful paragraph is EBFADC.

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