English Quiz for RBI Assistant Mains 2020, 20th September- Reading Comprehension

Keep practicing Daily English Mocks provided by Adda247. The Daily English Quiz will help you crack the upcoming RBI Assistant Mains 2020 examination. This miscellaneous quiz is based on Reading Comprehension.

Directions (1-8): Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows.  Some words are highlighted to help you answer some of the questions.

Paragraph 1: In a crucial development that exposes the flaws in health policy-making in the country, the Delhi High Court quashed a government ban on the retail sale and private manufacture of oxytocin. Notified by the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in April, the ban referred to a 2016 Himachal Pradesh High Court judgment, which discussed oxytocin’s misuse in dairy cattle, fruits and vegetables. However, soon after the order was issued, health experts pointed to the absurdity of it. Oxytocin is a life-saving drug used to stem post-partum bleeding among new mothers. Because of this it had been listed by both the World Health Organization and the Health Ministry as an essential medicine. Around 45,000 women die from post-partum complications in India each year, and in 38% of the cases the reason is haemorrhaging. Without the easy availability of inexpensive oxytocin, efforts to stem the maternal mortality epidemic could have suffered a costly setback. These worries led to the All India Drug Action Network (AIDAN), a patient-rights group, to challenge the order in the Delhi High Court.

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Paragraph 2: In its judgment on December 14, in response to AIDAN’s and drug manufacturers’ petitions, the court struck down the ban, calling it “unreasonable and arbitrary”. The court found that the government had failed to weigh the danger the ban posed to thousands of young mothers. What is more, it had failed to show that the drug was widely misused for veterinary purposes, the purported reason behind the order. Several bits of evidence cited in the judgment support this analysis. Even though the Centre claims to have made 25 illegal drug seizures across India in a three-year period, 12 of them didn’t actually find oxytocin. Among those that did, none involved licensed drugmakers. Karnataka Antibiotics & Pharmaceuticals Limited, the only authorised oxytocin producer after the ban, did not have the capability to manufacture it until mid-2017. It is mystifying why the Centre clamped down on licensed manufacturers with a proven track record, while roping in a state firm with no real experience. The most damning observation in the judgment is that the Centre focussed on the health of milch animals, without considering the well-being of women. This was despite the fact that all statutory bodies, including the Drugs Technical Advisory Board, had advised against a ban. This episode ought to compel policy-makers to reflect on the process that led to the ill-conceived order. Several questions must be answered. On what basis did the Centre overrule the advice of multiple statutory bodies? What led to its acceptance of sporadic reports of the drug’s misuse, without clinching proof? It is time for a post-mortem of how health policy is made, because that is the only way to safeguard the right to health of Indian citizens.

Q1. Which of the followings, if true, would make or help in making efforts to stem the maternal mortality epidemic to suffer a costly setback?

(I) Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare notified a ban on the retail sale and private manufacture of oxytocin.

(II) The Hon’ble Delhi High Court quashed the government ban on the retail sale and private manufacture of oxytocin.

(a) Only (I)

(b) Only (II)

(c) Both (I) and (II)

(d) Insufficient information

(e) None of the above

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Q2. Which of the following statements justify (ies) the usage of the word ‘absurdity’ as used in the paragraph 1?

(I) Oxytocin despite being a life-saving drug which is used to stem post-partum bleeding among new mothers was banned by the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

(II) The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare notified a ban on the retail sale and private manufacture of a drug which had been listed by both the Health Ministry as an essential medicine.

(III) A ministry under the Central Government banned a drug which is misused in dairy cattle, fruits and vegetables.

(a) Both (II) and (III)

(b) Both (I) and (III)

(c) Both (I) and (II)

(d) Only (III)

(e) Only (I)

Q3. Which of the following statements justify(ies) the action of the All India Drug Network (AIDAN), a patient-rights group, to challenge the ban on oxytocin in the Delhi High Court?

(I) Around 45,000 women die from post-partum complications in India each year, and in 38% of the cases the reason is haemorrhaging.

(II) Himachal Pradesh High Court 2016 judgement discussed oxytocin’s misuse in dairy cattle, fruits and vegetables.

(III) Without the easy availability of inexpensive oxytocin, efforts to stem the maternal mortality epidemic would suffer a costly setback.

(a) Only (II)

(b) Only (I) & (III)

(c) Only (III)

(d) Only (I)

(e) All of (I), (II) and (III)

Q4. Which of the followings illustrates the flaws in health policy-making in the country?

(a) The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare notified a ban on oxytocin which is listed by both the World Health Organization and the Health Ministry as an essential medicine.

(b) The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare banned an essential life-saving drug for a reason that the government could not substantiate in the Delhi High Court.

(c) The government banned an ordinary medicine which was considered by the Hon’ble Himachal Pradesh High Court to be misused in dairy cattle, fruits and vegetables.

(d) Both (a) and (b)

(e) None of the above

Q5. Which of the followings statements correctly illustrates the reasons behind the Hon’ble Delhi High Court calling the ban on oxytocin “unreasonable and arbitrary”?

(a) Ban on oxytocin poses danger to thousands of young mothers.

(b) Government failed to show that the drug was widely misused for veterinary purposes

(c) The Centre focused on the health of milch animals, without considering the well-being of women.

(d)The Centre banned oxytocin despite all statutory bodies, including the Drugs Technical Advisory Board, had advised against it.

(e) All of these

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Q6. Which of the following options correctly mention the way that is the only way, as considered by the author, to safeguard the right to health of Indian citizens?

(a) Removing ban on oxytocin

(b) Never to overrule the advice of multiple statutory bodies

(c) Never to accept sporadic reports of a drug’s misuse, without clinching proof

(d) Conducting a post-mortem of how health policy is made

(e) None of the above

Q7. Which of the following words display the correct SYNONYM of the word ‘quashed’?

(a) Mitigated

(b) Enervated

(c) Engendered

(d) Culminated

(e) Rescinded

Q8. Which of the following words is the correct ANTONYM of the word ‘setback’?

(a) aberration

(b) venality

(c) prescience

(d) advantage

(e) torpor

Directions (9-15): Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow it. Some of the words are highlighted to help you some of the questions.

Paragraph 1: Memories of tracking cricket in the Australian summer inevitably have the alarm clock’s shrill ring during nippy December dawns. It was an annual ritual: wake up groggy, gulp your morning brew and catch live action beamed in from Channel Nine.

Paragraph 2: The telecast quality was top-drawer; the commentary was a mix of baritone, gravelly voice, insights and excitement, think Bill Lawry, Richie Benaud, Ian Chappell and Tony Greig; the sea gulls were swell and when a big shot was struck, they rose in chaos and then flew away in symmetry. There was wicked humour too: a batsman departing on zero had a sad duck accompanying him on our television screens.

Paragraph 3: To partially borrow T.S. Eliot’s turn of phrase, nostalgia mixes memory with desire. The reality was a beguiling blend when this writer touched down at Adelaide a fortnight ago. The welcome chorus across immigration counters, the corner store and in cabs, was: “Here for the cricket? Good on you mate!” And then the knife was twisted into their own team: “Australia, no good, especially after what they did in South Africa. No Steve Smith, no David Warner.” The words were uttered with a sigh, the undertone was simmering anger.

Paragraph 4: Ever since Cameron Bancroft used a sandpaper to scuff the ball in the Cape Town Test this March, which led to the instant ban on the opener and primary instigators, Smith and Warner, Australia is holding a mirror to itself and the reflection isn’t good. This is a country that plays its sport competitively hard. Once, when Kapil Dev’s shot killed a bird, the distraught Indian captain requested some water but his counterpart, Allan Border, refused permission. But now, the overwhelming feeling is that the line of acceptable behaviour has been irreparably breached by Bancroft and company.

Paragraph 5: The Australian media has been caustic, and a recent article had these words: “Ball-tampering villain Bancroft.” The loathing that is directed towards the home squad has forced Cricket Australia to telecast saccharine videos featuring the national team and tagged with the catchline: “It’s your game.” Asked about his objectives, Australian captain Tim Paine lucidly said: “Winning matches and importantly, winning back the trust of our fans.”

Paragraph 6: And in a strange inversion of team loyalties, the Aussies are in thrall to Virat Kohli. Barring one booing session at the Adelaide Oval during the first Test which India won, the visiting captain has been treated like royalty. His arrival at the crease lends an extra timbre to the announcer’s voice and old-timers with considerable air-miles across Australia chasing cricket mention that the warm reception that Kohli gets is akin to what was reserved for Sachin Tendulkar in the old days.

Paragraph 7: When Kohli scored his sixth hundred in Australia (he has seven overall against the mighty team), during the second Test at Perth’s Optus Stadium, there was a standing ovation liberally infused with respect and awe. The cricket surely is intense, more slow-burn than disco lights but that’s how it is played in Australia. And does it match the action seen on television years ago? Absolutely.

Q9. Who are being referred by the word ‘sea gulls’?

(I) Bill Lawry

(II) Richie Benaud

(III) Ian Chappell

(IV) Tony Greig

(V) T.S. Eliot

(a) (I) and (II)

(b) (I), (II) and (V)

(c) (I), (II), (III) and (IV)

(d) (II), (III), (IV) and (V)

(e) All of (I), (II), (III), (IV) and (V)

Q10. What does the author meant by the clause ‘the reality was a beguiling blend’ he used in the paragraph 3?

(a) The Australians were very enthusiastic when someone come to Australia for the cricket.

(b) The Australians now feel distaste for the cricket due to what some Australian cricket players did in South Affrica.

(c) The Australians doesn’t like if foreigners visit Australia for the cricket.

(d) Options (a) and (c)

(e) None of the above

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Q11. How does the Australian view the act of Cameron Bancroft using a sandpaper to scuff the ball in the Cape Town Test?

(I) The Australians view the action of Cameron Bancroft as part of the high competitive spirit of Australians.

(II) The Australians are nonchalant with the action of Cameron Bancroft in the Cape Town Test.

(III) The Australians believes that the line of acceptable behaviour has been breached in such a way that it can be repaired.

(a) Only (III)

(b) Only (II)

(c) Only (I)

(d) All of (I), (II) and (III)

(e) None of the above

Q12. Which of the following words correctly illustrates the attitude of the Australian media toward what Cameron Bancroft and company did with the ball in the Cape Town Test?

(a) Sardonic

(b) Gratitude

(c) Contentment

(d) Joyous

(e) Satisfaction

Q13. What was the overall attitude of Australian Cricket Fans towards Virat Kohli?

(a) Gratitude

(b) Caustic

(c) Hatred

(d) Reverence

(e) Abhorrence

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Q14. Which of the following words has a meaning which is an ANTONYM of ‘baritone’?

(a) innocent

(b) truthful

(c) ambiguous

(d) confusing

(e) ignorant

Q15. Which of the following words is a SYNONYM of ‘distraught’?

(a) Extant

(b) Ambivalent

(c) Superfluous

(d) Perturbed

(e) Apathetic

Solutions

S1. Ans. (a)

Sol. The answer to the question can be derived from the paragraph 1. Kindly read the 9th line where it is written that ‘Without the easy availability of inexpensive oxytocin, efforts to stem the maternal mortality epidemic could have suffered a costly setback’. The sentence illustrates that the unavailability of affordable of oxytocin would cause a costly setback for the efforts to stem the maternal mortality epidemic.

Among the statements (I) and (II), banning retail sale and private manufacture of oxytocin would cause the unavailability of affordable of oxytocin.

Hence, option (a) is the correct answer.

S2. Ans. (c)

Sol. The word ‘absurdity’ is used in the fifth line of the paragraph 1. The sentence is ‘…health experts pointed to the absurdity of it’. Here, the pronoun ‘it’ refers to the ban on the retail sale and private manufacture of oxytocin notified by the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

The health experts consider the ban absurd for the following reasons, as mentioned in the sixth and seventh line:

Oxytocin is a life-saving drug used to stem post-partum bleeding among new mothers. Because of this it had been listed by both the World Health Organization and the Health Ministry as an essential medicine ‘.

Clearly, among the three statements, only statement (I) and (II) are correct.

The statement (III) is the justification given for banning the oxytocin.

Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.

S3. Ans. (b)

Sol. The answer to the question can be derived from the last few sentences of the paragraph 1. The worries which led to the AIDAN to challenge the ban on oxytocin are the following sentences:

Around 45,000 women die from post-partum complications in India each year, and in 38% of the cases the reason is haemorrhaging. Without the easy availability of inexpensive oxytocin, efforts to stem the maternal mortality epidemic could have suffered a costly setback.

Among the given three statements, (I), (II) & (III), the statements (I) & (III) illustrate the correct reasons.

Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.

S4. Ans. (d)

Sol. Among the given options, options (a) and (b) correctly illustrate the flaws in health policy-making in the country.

It is given in the paragraph 2 that the government could not prove with credibility if licensed manufacturer of oxytocin had any role in the instances where oxytocin was misused for veterinary purposes.

Moreover, it is given in the paragraph 1 that the oxytocin is a life-saving drug which had been listed by both the World Health Organization and the Health Ministry as an essential medicine.

Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.

S5. Ans. (e)

Sol.  The answer to the question can be derived from the paragraph 2. In the paragraph, all of the options (a), (b), (c) and (d) were the opinion and/or observed by the Hon’ble Delhi High Court.

Hence, option (e) is the correct answer.

S6. Ans. (d)

Sol. The answer to the question can be derived from the last sentence of the paragraph 2: ‘It is time for a post-mortem of how health policy is made, because that is the only way to safeguard the right to health of Indian citizens.

Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.

S7. Ans. (e)

Sol. Quashed [quash, verb] means ‘reject as invalid, especially by legal procedure’;

Mitigated [mitigate, verb] means ‘make less severe or harsh’;

Enervated [enervate, verb] means ‘to sap energy from’;

Engendered [engender, verb] means ‘give rise to’;

Culminated [culminate, verb] means ‘reach the highest or decisive point’;

Rescinded [rescind, verb] means ‘revoke, cancel, or repeal (a law, order, or agreement)’;

Among the given options, the word ‘rescinded’ is the correct SYNONYM of the given word ‘quashed’.

Hence, option (e) is the correct answer

S8. Ans. (d)

Sol. Setback [noun] means ‘a reversal or check in progress’;

Aberration [noun] means ‘a deviation from what is normal or expected’;

Calumny [noun] means ‘making of a false statement meant to injure a person’s reputation’;

Prescience [noun] means ‘the power to foresee the future’;

Advantage [noun] means ‘a condition or circumstance that puts one in a favourable or superior position’;

Torpor [noun] means ‘inactivity resulting from lethargy and lack of vigor or energy’;

From above, it can be understood that the word ‘advantage’ is the correct ANTONYM of the word ‘setback’.

Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.

S9. Ans. (c)

Sol. The answer to the question can be derived from the paragraph 2. The second line of the paragraph clearly reveals that ‘…Bill Lawry, Richie Benaud, Ian Chappell and Tony Greig…’ are referred to as sea gulls.

Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.

S10. Ans. (b)

Sol. Beguile [verb] means ‘charm or enchant (someone), often in a deceptive way’;

The phrase ‘…beguiling blend’ should mean that to charm or subject someone to deception with something that looks good’. The phrase seems to have a negative connotation.

The answer to the question can be derived from the paragraph 3. The sentences of the paragraph which would help us to deduce the answers are: ‘The welcome chorus across immigration counters, the corner store and in cabs, was: “Here for cricket? Good on you mate!” And then the knife was twisted into their own team: “Australia, no good, especially after what they did in South Africa. No Steve Smith, no David Warner.” The words were uttered with a sigh, the undertone was simmering anger.

The phrases ‘the knife’ and ‘the undertone was simmering anger’ provide the context and hint for the meaning of the ‘beguiling reality’. The Australians seems to be angry with the acts of some Australian cricketers in the South Africa and now feels distaste for the cricket.

The presence of the phrase ‘the knife’ after the phrase “here for cricket? Good on you mate!”  suggests that the latter phrase is filled with sarcasm.

Among the given options, only option (b) provides the correct meaning to the given clause.

Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.

S11. Ans. (a)

Sol. The answer to the question can be derived from the paragraph 4. Upon reading and understanding the paragraph, especially the last sentence, one can deduce that the statement (III) correctly illustrates how Australians view the action of Cameron Bancroft in the Cape Town Test.

Hence, option (a) is the correct answer.

S12. Ans. (a)

Sol. Caustic [adjective] means ‘sarcastic in a scathing and bitter way’;

Sardonic [adjective] means ‘grimly mocking or cynical’;

Gratitude [noun] means ‘the quality of being thankful’;

Contentment [noun] means ‘a state of happiness and satisfaction’;

The answer to the question can be derived from the paragraph 5. The first sentence of the paragraph starts with the clause ‘The Australian media has been caustic…

From above, it can be deduced that the caustic and sardonic are synonyms and reflect the attitude of the Australian media.

Hence, option (a) is the correct answer.

 S13. Ans. (d)

Sol. Gratitude [noun] means ‘the quality of being thankful; readiness to show appreciation for and to return kindness’;

Caustic [adjective] means ‘sarcastic in a scathing and bitter way’;

Reverence [noun] means ‘deep respect for someone or something’;

Abhorrence [noun] means ‘a feeling of revulsion; disgusted loathing’;

The answer to the question can be derived from the last sentence of the paragraph 6.

It could be understood that the ‘reverence’ is the word which is most closely related to the overall attitude of the Australian Cricket Fans toward Kohli.

Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.

S14. Ans. (e)

Sol. Baritone [adjective] means ‘intense in effect on senses’;

From above, it could be found that the word ‘ignorant’ is an ANTONYM of ‘baritone’.

Hence, option (e) is the correct answer.

S15. Ans. (d)

Sol. Distraught [adjective] means ‘very upset, worked up’;

Extant [adjective] means ‘still in existent’;

Ambivalent [adjective] means ‘mixed or conflicting emotions about something’;

Superfluous [adjective] means ‘serving no useful purpose; more than is needed, desired, or required’;

Perturbed [adjective] means ‘feeling anxiety or concern; unsettled’;

Apathetic [adjective] means ‘marked by a lack of interest’;

From above, it could be understood that ‘perturbed’ has a meaning which is SIIMILAR to the meaning of the word ‘distraught’.

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